The Way: Two Gods In The Old Testament

‘The Way’ will reveal the major alterations made to the Bible, theological and historical coverups – all part of the Great Deception. ‘The Way’ series will also reveal the true meaning of Jesus’ message and how to reach spiritual perfection.

This is not intended to shake your faith, or prove God isn’t real. God is very real. This is simply to help point out the errors the Catholic Church inserted into the text. The institutionalized Church and the canonized Bible are the Great Deception. No matter how hard the early Catholics tried to alter the text, Truth remains. Clues to the true story are hidden in the lies. The Light hidden within the Darkness. As a minister of Christ and follower of ‘The Way’, it is my job to defend Truth and present it to the world. I give you the facts, it is up to you to look into it yourself. Don’t believe it because I say it, believe it because you see it to be true.

Before you read any further, it must be understood I am not attacking God, but defending Him. I am not attacking His Word, but revealing it. I am not seeking to destroy His way, but to preserve it. I am a follower of Yeshua, defender of The Way.

All quotes, in part and whole, of outside works are done so for educational purposes protected by the Fair Use Agreement as outlined in U.S. Copyright Law 17 U.S. Code § 107 – Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use

In this second edition of ‘The Way’, we will see that there are actually two gods in the Old Testament warring with each other. These two gods, one for mankind and the other against, purposely written into a single being. We will see the identities of these two gods, how they’re mentioned in the Bible, and how they became known as a singular god. Sections include: “Who is Jehovah?”, “Evolution of Yahweh”, and “A More In-depth Look”.

I will be quoting from a few well researched sources. There are many more sources and ancient texts to backup, verify, and otherwise confirm the information presented. As I will be largely quoting from other sources, my commentary will be minimal. The information is being provided to you, it is up to you to do with it what you will. I believe two of the sources quoted are Gnostic and the third Christian.

Who is Jehovah?

To begin, I will continue about Yahweh/Jehovah, as previously discussed in the first edition The Way: Is Yahweh/Jehovah Satan?

I open by quoting from a Gnostic Wisdom Foundation article titled Jehovah:

Jehovah is the modern variation of the tetragrammaton YHWH, sometimes pronounced Yahweh. The pronunciation Yo-ho-wah is actually closer to the original. The other words associated with Jehovah are: Adonai, Lord and Elohim. Elohim is actually plural and refers to Gods, or Lords. In Genesis 3:22, after Adam and Eve partake of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the Lord says, “Behold, the man is become as one of us,” the “us” being the Elohim, the Lords of the Earth.

An interesting change takes place in the story of Genesis. The original creation story takes place with God as the creator in chapter 1. Chapter 2 begins the same way, until verse 4, where a new entity is introduced, the LORD God, who now claims to have made heaven and earth. This is the first lie. The second lie appears in the story of Adam and Eve.

The Lords of the Earth, the Elohim, were an ancient race of advanced beings that created modern man through the process of genetic manipulation and were revered as gods by the human societies they created. The fact remains that these beings were physical creatures that came into being long after the heavens and the earth were created. Claiming to have made the heavens and the earth to the human civilizations they created is simply further proof that these beings lied and manipulated humans for their own purposes. It is certainly not proof that they were any kind of god. To the contrary, it stands as a form of proof that they were NOT gods at all.

[…..]

The Gnostics in the time of Jesus knew full well that the old Lords of the Earth were not Gods. In the Gnostic document known as the Secret Gospel of John is the story of a false god creating the bodies of man, unable to bring them to life. The false god is told that he must breathe life into the bodies he has created. What the false god is not told, is that as he breathes into the body he has created, the true God, a God that is Spirit only, places a small speck of His own spirit into the body, giving it life. The false god is allowed to continue his own ego trip, believing that he has created life while the true God, the creator of all life,remains hidden, acting in the background.

Jesus reveals that truth in his confrontation with the Pharisees in John 8:44 when he tells them, “Ye are ofyourfather the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.” Jesus was speaking of Jehovah, the Lord of Abraham,Isaac and Jacob.

The Old Testament combines two distinct individuals into one God, which stands as the most confusing aspect of understanding God. By separating the two individuals out into their original personalities, we can get a clearer view of what God really is. The two physical individuals were known as Enlil and Enki. They were half brothers: Enki, was the oldest, and Enlil, was the younger brother, but born of a mother with a higher social standing than Enki’s mother. Because of the higher social standing, Enlil was given over-all control of the civilizations here on planet Earth. Enlil thus became known as the Lord, God almighty, now called Jehovah.

Enlil authorized the genetic experiments that resulted in the eventual creation of modern man. Enlil was annoyedby the newly propagating race of humans and developed an anti-human attitude (mankind’s antagonist). Enki, having conceived of the race of man and being intimately involved in the genetic manipulation, viewed himself as the protector of man (mankind’s protagonist). By combining these two physical beings into a one God concept, God became both for and against mankind. God became botha loving God and an angry and jealous Godat the same time.

Enki was the member of the Elohim with a spiritual background; Enlil was not spiritualat all. Over time Enki came to the conclusion that mankind needed to know its true potential and started the mystery school system in ancient Egypt (circa 2750 BC). The Gnostic religion was the outer form of the mystery school system and was the primary recruiting ground for the members that later became known as the Great White Brotherhood. The organizationderived its name not from a particular race,but from its focus on a particular substance; the white powder of gold. Many races and nationalities were represented in the Great White Brotherhood.

Enlil, as the angry and jealous god of the Old Testament, Jehovah, waged a number of turf wars against the other Elohim, usinghumans to do the fighting. This resulted in the murder of hundreds of thousands of humans at the direction of Jehovah. The Lords of the Earth owned and controlled the land and used unsuspecting humans toexpand their influence in their endless squabbles among themselves. The Elohim, far from being a divine race, were little different from the world’s population today:constantly fighting for control of the land and the natural resources the land contains.

[…..]

Enki, through the mystery school system, taught mankind that there is a true God, a God of Spirit that is the true source of all life in the universe. A God based strictly on Love, Peace and Compassion. This is the God of which Jesus spoke, and is why Jesus left us with but a single commandment: to love one another. Each day we have a choice: we can serve and worship the memory of a physical being steeped in lies, manipulation, violence, murder and genocide, or we can serve the true God of Spirit, based on Love, Peace and Compassion. As Jesus said: God is Spirit, and what is born of Spirit, is spirit. You are a divine child of God. You are the living light of spirit. As Jesus told us in the Sermon on the Mount:youare the light of the world. By living our lives in Love, we bring ourselves closer to God, closer to the truth, and closer to the perfection God sees in each and every one of us.

Remember, in the end analysis: oneness is the only reality, truth is the only value, and Love is the only power.

Here we see that not only, as The Way: Is Yahweh/Jehovah Satan? shows, Jehovah is in fact a demiurge and known as Satan, but his true and most ancient identity being Enlil of the Elohim. A being that had a complete and blatant disregard for mankind. It was Enlil who chose to kill, enslave, and otherwise oppress mankind. It was Enlil/Jehovah that kept mankinds spiritual wisdom from us in an attempt to keep us from realizing and reaching our fullest potential. Enki, who refused to stand idly by and his creation be enslaved and systematically destroyed, made an attempt to reveal to us such wisdom and free us from the servitude and destruction of Enlil/Jehovah.

When the cuneiform tablets of the ancient Sumerians were uncovered in the mid-1800s from archaeological excavations in Nineveh, Nippur, Babylon, and elsewhere, the discoveries sent shockwaves around the world. Many Biblical scholars were greatly encouraged and believed that the Genesis accounts were finally vindicated. For them, it was obvious that the Sumerians had handed down, with a few distortions, memories of the same historical events that God had inspired Moses to record in Genesis. For other Biblical experts, however, the newly-discovered Sumerian texts were interpretedin a different way. Skeptical Biblical critics took the view that because the Sumerian texts predated the book of Genesis by 500-1000 years, then it was obvious that the Sumerian texts must be the authentic accounts. Both accounts were viewed by the critics as merely myths, and certainly not based on historical events, but because the Sumerian myths were older and it was assumed that “antiquity equals authenticity” then they had to be the true myths. The book of Genesis was then viewed as merely a distorted compilation or recollection of the Mesopotamian originals.  This interpretation of the relationship between Sumerian “myth” and the book of Genesis remains the dominant view in the academic world today.

Evolution of Yahweh/Jehovah

I open with a quotes of interest from The Truth Seekers article The True Name of God

[….]
Below are just a few parallels to digest(there are many, many more):
The Throne of God
Enki/Ea
Sits upon a throne decorated with pots from which flow two streams of water, indicating he is the source of the earth’s streams of freshwater.

Yahweh
Sits upon a throne portrayed as being over a stream of freshwater that leaves the temple in Jerusalem and travels eastward to the Dead Sea, rejuvenating it.

Many similar motifs can be found in:
The “Myth” of Adapa
Food conferring immortality, a god denying man immortality, the acquisition of forbidden knowledge.

The story of Genesis
Food conferring immortality, God denying man immortality, the acquisition of forbidden knowledge.

The Tower Of Babel
Enki/Ea
Confounded the language of the people of the earth.“Enki, the contender…En of cunning, the shrewd one of the land, sage of the gods, gifted in thinking, the En of Eridu,change the speech of their mouths, he having set up contention in it, in the human speech that had been one.”

Yahweh/El
Confounded man’s single language because of their hubris in building the Tower of Babel.

The Deluge
Enki/Ea
Warned Ziusudra (or Utnapishtim) of an impending Flood that would destroy the world and all of mankind. Telling him to save himself and the seeds of all living things by building a boat.

Yahweh/El
Warned Noah of an impending Flood that would destroy the world and all of mankind. Telling him to save himself and all the animals by building a boat.

[….]

The biblical version of the “Great Flood’s” happy ending is chock full of biblical contradictions. It begins by telling of man’s abominations including the corruption of the purity of the “Sons of God”.

A decision is reached to have all flesh perish.The same Deity rushes Noah in 7 days to build an Ark to save the seed of mankind and all living things. Why? Was the Deity’s purpose in this to defeat his own plan? When the flood is over and the Ark lands the deity who is enticed by the smell of roasting meat, forgets his original determination to end all mankind, and even makes a covenant with Noah to never do so again.The nagging contradictions can easily be placed to rest if one considers the fact that the bible’s version is an edited version of the original Sumerian account.

As in many other instances, the edited “monotheistic” Bible has compressed into one deity the roles played by one or more other gods who did not always act in accord.From the Sumerian version, Enki who disagreed with his brother Enlil’s commandto destroy all humans found a way to warn Utnapistim/Ziusudra.

‘Man of Shuruppak, son of Ubar-tutu: Tear down thy house, build a ship! Give up possessions, seek thou life! Foreswear belongings, keep soul alive! Aboard ship take thou theseedof all living things; That ship thou shalt build – Her dimensions shall be to measure…From the Bible, God determined to end all mankind then gives a reprieve and warns Noah.

Genesis 6:14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.
Genesis 6:15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.

After the flood, Utnapishtim/Ziusudra built an altar and offered a sacrifice.

From the Enuma Elish;
‘the gods smelled the savor, the gods smelled the sweet savor the gods crowded like flies about a sacrificer’

From the Bible;
Genesis 8:20 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
Genesis 8:21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination ofman’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.

[….]

Moses then said to God,`Look, if I go to theIsraelites and say to them, “The god of your ancestors has sent me to you,” and they say to me, “What is his name?” what am I to tell them. God said to Moses, `I am who I am’.
Exodus 3:13-14

As we have learned, Enki (`Lord of the Earth’) was called Ea in Akkadian (East Semitic) – that is to say in the Babylonian tradition. Scholars have determined that Eawas vocalized as ‘Eya’. So, when Moses stood before the burning bush and asked the name of the god of the mountain, did “God” really reply`I am who I am’(Heb. Eyah asher eyah)? This puzzling phrase has long perplexed many theologians here is our simple explanation.

The voice of God simply replied`Eyah asher Eyah’-`I am (the one) who is called Eyah’– the name of Ea in its West Semitic (Hebrew) form. Some Scholars have simply failed to recognize (most often those with strong theological ties) that this is another of those characteristic puns in which the Old Testament abounds.`I am (Eyah) he who iscalled (asher) Ea (Eyah)’is a classic biblical play on words.

It also explains God’s apparently nonsensical instruction:`This is what you are to say to the Israelites,“I am has sent me to you”. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to figure out that the above statement makes no sense.The words properly translated are`Eyah has sent me to you’.

[….]

Evidence has it that the “Yahweh” movement originated with the court of King Solomon’s son Rehoboam about 960 BCE, at that time many documents were written to strongly favor the Davidic line of succession in a bid to unite the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. The Yahweh ‘sect’ was concentrated in the south in Judah and is associated with temple ritual among the Jews and the El ‘sect’was in the north among the Israelites- just as Chemosh was the patron god of the Moabites, Milcom of the Ammonites,Hadad of the Arameans, Melkart of the Tyrians.

Though initially of the same clan and stock the Judeans felt they had a claim to rule over all Hebrews and the Israelites did not feel the same.They each developed their own countries with their own kings and both also had their own biblical versions.During the 7th and 6th centuries BCE these separate but similar “Bibles” were merged in an effort to once again unite the tribes ofIsrael under one King and one Banner.The efforts of the Hebrews in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE were not so much the creation of new gods and new concepts from whole cloth, but rather the taking of older concepts and adding a “New Twist.”

Yahweh-El is the result of the new twists derived from a re-working and transformation of older concepts by the Hebrews, who followed in the footsteps of their Mesopotamian predecessors.Yahweh-El is simply a re-working and transformation of the Sumerian god of Wisdom and Knowledge, Enki, also called Ea or Ia, which later became – Iah/Yah/Yaw.This transformation may have also come to the Hebrews from other places but the fact remains that even those others we can trace that contributed to the Supremacy of Yahweh-El simply re-interpret and spun their own twists on the Sumerian epics.

[….]

In the Ugaritic myths Baal conquers the tannin of the sea, so does Yahweh. Baal-Hadad the storm god was the chief god of the Arameans, and it worth noting that Israel claimed her ancestors were Arameans, and that Yahweh is likened to possessing the epithets and achievements of Baal-Hadad, he appearing at Mount Sinai in the form of a Storm Cloud.

Baal Hadad (alternately, Adad) is portrayed as a god who dwells within the darkness ofa thundercloud, whose thunder is his voice,and whose rains, initiate the Flood that destroys all mankind.

The Biblical portrayal of Yahweh as a god who dwells within the darkness of the thundercloud (Deut 4:11; 5:22, 23) is borrowing imagery from Baal-Hadad, who also dwells in a dark thundercloud and whose voice is the thunder. The Bible also relates that Yahweh was called Baal by some Israelites “And in that day, says the Lord, you will callme, ‘My Husband,’ and no longer will you call me, ‘My Ba’al.’ For I will remove the names of the Ba’als from her mouth, and they shall be mentioned by name no more.” Hosea 2:16

If Yahweh was originally subordinate to El, it be could that the Israelites at first imagined him as a god of the same type as Canaanite Baal.
-Yahweh as did Baal also appeared as a storm-god.
-Yahweh like Baal first established his kingship over the world by subduing the unruly cosmic waters, symbolized by a serpent or a dragon.
-There are psalms that show Yahweh subduing the waters along with the dragons Leviathan and Rahab.
-Like Baal, Yahweh had been a god who had to fight the waters until they submitted to his will.
-Like Baal, Yahweh constantly sustained the ordered world.

Yahweh did not – any more than Baal or Marduk – remain subordinate to the supreme god their fathers.

[….]

From The Gilgamesh Epic:
“There rises from the foundation of the heavens a black cloud. Adad thunders in the midst of it.”

From The Bible:
“And you came near and stood at the foot of the mountain, while the mountain burned with fire to the heart of heaven, wrapped in darkness, cloud and gloom.Deut 4:11″These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly at the mountain out of the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darknesswith a loud voice…And when you heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain was burning with fire….”
Deut 5:22,23

[….]

Marduk, (Enki/Ea’s eldest son) after slayingTiamat, holds his bow up for praise and places it in the heavens as a”bow star constellation,” a type of memorial to his ending the threat of a flood to destroy the gods who dwelt on the earth.Yahweh-El, like Marduk, places his bow in the heavens after bringing to an end the Flood, as a rainbow.

[….]

`Eyah’ or simply `Ya’ is the hypocoristic form of the name Yahweh found as an element of so many Old Testament names. So Enki/Ea, the god who created Man and then later warned Ziusudra/Utnapishtim of the impending destruction of mankind, is one and the same as the god of Moses.

This was the great revelation given to the hero of Exodus during his long exile from Egypt in the wilderness of Sinai. It was only when Moses came into contact with the Midianite priest, Jethro, that the highly Egyptian-ized Israelite learned of a much earlier history for his people their origins in the land of Eden, their descent into Shinar and the name of their primeval God. The Midianites were also descended from the patriarch, Abraham, through the sons of his wife, Keturah. They however, had not suffered oppression in the land of Egypt, having split off from the Abrahamic tribe and settled in northwestern Arabia [Genesis 25:1-6]. They had not lost their cultural and religious identity through slavery to a civilization with different beliefs and traditions.

It is likely that the Midianites would have been culturally closer to their origins than the Israelites. They too had a rich oral tradition stretching back to ancestral Mesopotamia. Or perhaps they carried withthem original cuneiform tablets relating thedifferent myths and epics of their ancestorsfrom Sumer.

Moses then said to God,`Look, if I go to theIsraelites and say to them “The god of yourancestors has sent me to you,” and they say to me “What is his name?”, what am I to tell them?’ God said to Moses, `I am he who is called Ea’. And he said, `This is whatyou are to say to the Israelites, “Ea has sent me to you”. You are to tell the Israelites, “Ea, the god of your ancestors, the god of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, has sent me to you.” This is my name for all time and in this way I am to be invoked for all generations to come.’ Exodus 3:13,14, 15

The implications are clear: the Israelites did not know the name Ea and so it follows that they had little or no idea of their ancestral heritage.

[….]

With our identification of Yahweh with the Sumerian god Enki and the Akkadian god Ea we have had an opportunity to comparethecharacter and attributes of the deities to see if they represent the same basic natural elements. The following is the authoritative view of Yahweh.

While the date and origins of the names are debatable, the character of Yahweh is certainly clear, although multifaceted in the biblical text.
·He is a storm god who speaks in the thunder, who hurls or shoots lightning (Exodus 19:16-19; 20:18; Psalm 18:14; Job37:5; Amos 1:2; Habakkuk 3:11).
·He is a god of the mountains (Exodus 19; 1 Kings 20:3).
·Fire is both a sign of Yahweh’s presence and a weapon (Exodus 13:21; 1 Kings 18:38).
·He is a god of the desert (Judges 5:4).·He has control over the waters of the earth – the sea (Exodus 14:21; Jonah),
·He has control over the rivers Joshua 3:16-17),·He has control over the rain (Genesis 2:5; 1 Kings 17).
·He is the giver of life and one who brings death.
·He is a god of war and of peace.

There are many aspects here that are characteristic of Enki/Ea who is the life-giving deity of fresh water, but there are also others which reflect the more violent nature of his brother Enlil (`Lord of the Air’) who was the head of the Mesopotamian pantheon, also known as Baal the Canaanite storm god and Seth, the Egyptian god of the desert. The god of Moses thus reflects an amalgam of deities.

A More In-depth Look

Here I have a few quotes of interest from Domination by Deception by Peter Goodgame, which may be found in its entirety at RedMoonRising.com

YHWH is similar to the enigmatic god Anu in that both are viewed as “Father” deities. Anu was understood as the father of the first generation of gods including the two brothers Enlil and Enki, while YHWH was the “father” of the angelic host who are referred to throughout the Old Testament as the B’nai Ha Elohim, or “Sons of God.” Anu may have also been viewed by the Sumerians as the original creator of the universe, but gradually creation became viewed as a “natural” process involving impersonal primordial “forces.” For the Sumerians Anu was really unimportant and he existed as an “otiose” deity far away in heaven, which was also the place from where YHWH ruled according to the Hebrews.

The apparent relationship between YHWH and Enlil is much more substantial. Enlil was not viewed by the Sumerians as the original Creator of the universe but he was viewed as the ultimate Ruler of the gods and of mankind. Sumerian myths also describe Enlil as the father of a generation of gods, and several myths refer to Enlil (as opposed to Enki) as the creator and father of mankind. The cult center of Enlil was located in the holy city of Nippur, which was never a political capital and does not appear as a capital city on the Sumerian King List. Nippur was instead a sort of religious capital where the kings of Sumer went to receive Enlil’s approval and to honor the mightiest and most-feared of theSumerian gods. According to the Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta epic, prior to the reign of Enmerkar the Sumerians worshiped Enlil alone, which implies something similar to Hebrew monotheistic worship of YHWH. The Sumerians also looked to Enlil as the ultimate decision-maker within the council of the gods and, like YHWH in the book of Genesis, it was Enlil who decided to send the Great Flood to wipe out mankind.

The relationship between YHWH and Enki presents much more of a challenge for scholars of the ancient texts and remains a highly debated question. If any god could be said to be the”personal” god of the Sumerians it would have to be Enki. Like YHWH’s relationship with the Hebrews, Enki was viewed by the Sumerians as powerful, kind, and wise in his schemes to protect the Sumerians from the animosity of other gods (especially Enlil) and from neighboring enemy tribes. Just as YHWH cared for his people, the Hebrews, so was Enki portrayed as caring for the Sumerians. As mentioned inPart Five, Enki’s apparent love for mankind could be traced back to Sumerian traditions that Enki, just like YHWH in Genesis, was personally involved in creating mankind out of clay. Enki also played a role similar to YHWH when, through his actions, a particular family was chosen, warned, and spared from the Great Flood by being given instructions for building an ark.

[….]

David Rohl even believes that YHWH actually declared His identity as Enki/Ea to Moses in a straightforward manner at the incident of the burning bush:
“Moses then said to God, ‘Look, if I go to the Israelites and say to them, “The god of your ancestors has sent me to you,” and they say to me, “What is his name?” what am I to tell them?’ God said to Moses,’I am who I am’.” [Exodus 3:13-14]

Here is how David Rohl explains this curious dialogue between Moses and the Voice from the burning bush:
“As we have learnt, Enki (‘Lord of the Earth’) was called Ea in Akkadian (East Semitic) – that is to say in the Babylonian tradition. Scholars have determined that Ea was vocalized as ‘Éya’. So, when Moses stood before the burning bush and asked the name of the god of the mountain, did he really reply ‘I am who I am’ (Heb.Eyah asher eyah)? This puzzling phrase has long perplexed theologians but now there is a simple explanation. The voice of God simply replied ‘Eyah asher Eyah’– ‘I am (the one) who is called Eyah’ – the name of Ea in its West Semitic (i.e. Hebrew) form. Scholars have simply failed to recognize that this is another of those characteristic puns in which the Old Testament abounds. ‘I am (Eyah) he who is called (asher) Ea (Eyah)’ is a classic biblical play on words. It also explains God’s apparently nonsensical instruction: ‘This is what you are to say to the Israelites, “I am has sent me to you.”‘ God’s words should really be translated as ‘Eyah has sent me to you.”Eyah’ or simply ‘Ya’ is the hypocoristic form of the nameYahweh found as an element of so many Old Testament names. So Enki/Ea, the god who created Man and then later warned Ziusudra/Utnapishtim of the impending destruction of mankind, is one and the same as the god of Moses.”

[….]

Gardner approaches the subject of Enlil and Enki in his follow-up book Genesis of the Grail Kings(1999), and for him the identity of YHWH/Jehovah is very obvious. “The Jehovah of the Jews (El Elyon of the Canaanites) was, therefore, synonymous with Enlil of the Anunnaki,son of the great Anu.” Gardner then goes on to identify Enki. “The serpent who conversed at length with Eve was clearly not a lowly, dumb creature, but a guardian of the sacred knowledge… It is further evident from the Mesopotamian serpent illustration that it has a direct Enki association, since Enki (Ea) was traditionally depicted as the Serpent-Lord of the Euphrates. Just as the serpent was the giver of wisdom, so Enki was constantly referred to as Enki the Wise…” For Gardner the “Grail Kings” are the true kings who have the divine right to rule over mankind. He traces the genealogy of this illuminated elite back to Cain, the first son of Eve, and Gardner resurrects the ancient Talmudic legend that Cain’s true father was Samael the serpent, identified by Gardner as Enki. He writes,”In terms of sovereign genealogy, the line of Ham and Nimrod (in descent from Cain, Lamech and Tubal-cain) held the true heritage of Grail kingship, while the Sethian line through Noah and Shem were of lesser standing…” According to Gardner, Ham was in fact the first-born son of Tubal-Cain, and not the son of Noah as stated in Genesis. With this step Gardner is able secure a line of human descent directly to Enki himself, even through the catastrophe of the Great Flood.

In commenting on the Judeo-Christian concept of Satan/Lucifer as the great Adversary of God and man, Gardner claims that this is a spurious theological invention created to help intimidate and subjugate early Christians under the domination of the Roman Church. For Gardner, the serpent-god Enki was mankind’s original creator, our most important teacher, our protector against the animosity of Enlil/YHWH, and essentially “a true champion of mankind.”

Mark Amaru Pinkham is a successful author who also alleges that mankind’s true creator is Lucifer,a name which he says is synonymous with Enki of the Sumerians. Pinkham’s ideas are explained in his bookThe Return of the Serpents of Wisdom(1997), while in another book,The Truth Behind the Christ Myth(2002), he explains that Jesus Christ was simply one of a series of manifestations of this divine figure. Pinkham has also written on the connection between the true”christ” and the medieval Knights Templar, and he is the founder of an organization calledThe International Order of Gnostic Templars.

William Henry is another name associated with Sitchin’s “extra-terrestrial origins” theory. Henry refers to himself as an “investigative mythologist,” he has published close to a dozen books, and he can be heard often on late-night radio on shows such as Coast-to-Coast AM that discuss alternative and esoteric issues. In one of his online articles Henry explains how the conflictbetween Enki/Ea and Enlil continues to the present day:”E.A. and his priests, seek to uplift humanity to the level of the gods through global education and revelation of all sacred secrets. Enlil’s priests seek to keep humanity at the level of slaves and sex objects, the property of a police state cryptocracy.”

[….]

In his book Dimensions(1989) Vallee elaborates on this hypothesis: “I propose that there is a spiritual control system for human consciousness and that paranormal phenomen alike UFOs are one of its manifestations. I cannot tell whether this control is natural and spontaneous; whether it is explainable in terms of genetics, of social psychology, or of ordinary phenomena—or if it is artificial in nature, under the power of some superhuman will. It may be entirely determined by laws that we have not yet discovered.”

If indeed the ancient “gods” are manipulating and controlling human consciousness from other dimensions then we can expect Enki to be playinga major role in this ongoing program. But is his role positive, as the Sumerians and modern New Age authors assure us, or is he the Great Deceiver and the greatest enemy of both God and man, as Judeo-Christian traditions have warned from the very beginning?

[….]

As far as the pagan world was concerned there was only one story to be told, even though each culture told it in a unique way with different names and each with its own culturally-relevant details. In the final analysis this story is Enki’s story, and Enki’s great rival Enlil, understood by so many to be YHWH the God of Israel, had to wait about fifteen hundred years before He could give His side of the story. That was the approximate length of time from the invention of writing to the moment when Moses met his appointment with God on the top of Mt. Sinai. It will be interesting as we find out what He had to say.

Biblical Response

[….]

Modern scholars find many similarities when they compare Genesis with the creation accounts of the Sumerians and Babylonians. For instance, according to Genesis, creation took place in seven days, literal or otherwise, whereas the Enuma Elish creation account of the Babylonians was written down in a division of seven tablets. Other similarities exist, but these many similarities only serve to highlight the few important differences that do exist. These differences are enough to prove that the Hebrews had an understanding of creation and early history in common with the pagan cultures, but they viewed these events from a completely different, and in many cases opposite, perspective.

Concerning the “Fall of Man,” this is the event in Genesis that sets the stage for all further divine-human relationships, whether they be mankind’s relationship with God, or mankind’s relationship with the “Sons of God,” also known as the fallen angels, who manipulate human affairs from the spirit-world. This event also introduces the primary adversary of God and Man, who is referred to in Hebrew as the nachash of the Garden of Eden. Semitic languages scholar Dr. Michael S. Heiser believes that this word, which is usually translated as “serpent,” can also be translated as “the shining one.” This means that this creature was not a mere snake, but was a divine being capable of using speech to flatter and deceive. Heiser associates this nachash with the descriptions of Satan in Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28. In Isaiah his name is given as Helel ben Shakar, which means “the shining one, son of thedawn, “translated in some Bibles as “Lucifer, son of the morning,” whereas Ezekiel helps to explain the origins of his overblown pride: “You had the seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.You were in Eden, the garden of God…”

While the tempter of Eve may not have been an actual snake, he has always been associated with the serpent in one way or another. The book of Revelation (12:9) describes him as a red dragon, and refers to him as “the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world.” In the book of Genesis his punishment for deceiving Eve also appears to be related to his “serpentine” aspect: “Because you have done this, cursed are you above all the livestock and all the wild animals! You will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.” (Genesis 3:14-15) Within this curse upon the serpent was also a prediction of the serpent’s doom, which would come from a man descended from Eve herself. The Hebrews understood this promise as the Protoevangelium, or “first prophecy,” of the coming of the world’s Messiah who would provide the remedy and reverse the effects of the Fall.

For the Hebrews “Satan the Serpent” was known from the beginning as a cunning deceiver who was cursed by God and would one day be destroyed by the Messiah. Compare this with the pagan view of the “shining serpent,” as given by Philo of Byblos, translated from even earlier Phoenician texts:

“The nature then of the dragon and of serpents Tauthus [Egyptian Thoth, Greek Hermes] himself regarded as divine, and so again after him did the Phoenicians and Egyptians: for this animal was declared by him to be of all reptiles most full of breath, and fiery. In consequence of which it also exerts an unsurpassable swiftness by means of its breath, without feet and hands or any other of the external members by which the other animals make their movements. It also exhibits forms of various shapes, and in its progress makes spiral leaps as swift as it chooses. It is also most long-lived, and its nature is to put off its old skin, and so not only to grow young again, but also to assume a larger growth; and after it has fulfilled its appointed measure of age, it is self-consumed, in like manner as Tauthus himself has set down in his sacred books: for which reason this animal has also been adopted in temples and in mystic rites… The Phoenicians call it “Good Daemon”; in like manner the Egyptians also surname it Cneph;and they add to it the head of a hawk because of the hawk’s activity. Epeïs also (who is called among them a chief hierophant and sacred scribe, and whose work was translated by Areius of Heracleopolis), speaks in an allegory word for word as follows: ‘The first and most divine being is a serpent with the form of a hawk, extremely graceful, which whenever he opened his eyes filled all with light in his original birthplace, but if he shut his eyes, darkness came on. ‘Epeïs here intimates that he is also of a fiery substance, by saying ‘he shone through,’ for to shine through is peculiar to light.”

The question that begs to be asked is this: What can possibly explain these two radically different perspectives on the nature of the serpent? For the Hebrews he was cursed by God to a level lower than that of animals and forced to eat dust, whereas for the pagans he was the”Good Daemon,”and”the first and most divine being.”

After God’s cursing of the serpent the next curse falls upon Cain for killing his brother Abel. In PartFive we saw how the dispute between the shepherd and the farmer is resolved differently in Sumerian texts than in the book of Genesis, with the farming winning divine favor over the shepherd, and the shepherd becoming belligerent towards the farmer. There is also a different emphasis on the lines of descent. Genesis gives the descendents of Cain and relates their founding of the first city, but Seth’s line is more important because it leads to Noah. On the other hand, the Sumerians appear to focus upon the line of Cain, with the institution of the hereditary monarchy “descending from heaven” to Enki’s city, the city of Eridu, named for Irad the grandson of Cain. In contrast, as far as YHWH was concerned the institution of a monarchy was unnecessary and was viewed as inevitably leading to oppression (1 Samuel 8:10-22).

The other “descent from the heavens” account is the descent of the fallen angels themselves. This is portrayed in Genesis 6, and it involves unholy relations between some of the “sons of God” and human women, a relationship which produced the Nephilim. From this human-angelic interaction the world became”corrupt in the sight of God”and”filled with violence,” which became the justification for sending the global Flood. According to pagan mythologies this was the Golden Age of Kronos when the gods lived with men during the era of the kingdom of Atlantis. However, even though it was viewed as an idealistic time when the “true religion” originally ruled, Greek writers such as Plato explained that Atlantis became corrupt in its spiritual teachings and used its great power to dominate and abuse the entire world.

The non-canonical book of Enoch explains how the fallen angels taught mankind astronomy and astrology, charms and spells, and the properties of plants and herbs. One particular angel named Azazel”taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and taught them about metals of the earth and the art of working them”(Enoch 8:1). In Genesis the craft of metalworking is ascribed to Tubal-Cain, a descendent of Cain. David Rohl associates this name with Bad-tibira, which is the second city on the Sumerian King List, following Eridu where”kingship descended from heaven.” According to Sumerian accounts the great”civilizer” of mankind was the great god Enki, the Lord of the Abzu in Eridu, who was portrayed as a firm friend and champion of mankind. On the other hand the book of Enoch explains that the innovations given to mankind were used for wicked purposes. The Nephilim ruled with an ironfist, “and when men could no longer sustain them,the giants turned against them and devoured mankind”(Enoch 7:4). Regarding Azazel himself, Enoch 10:8 reads:”The whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azazel:to him ascribe ALL SIN.”

After the Great Flood we come to a curious incident in which Ham, one of the three sons of Noah, dishonors his father. This brings about another curse, which is a curse from Noah, given because of Ham’s indiscretion but applied to Ham’s son Canaan. In the Sumerian King List and in the myth Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta both Meskiagkasher (Cush) and Enmerkar (Nimrod) are said to be descendents of Utu. If Utu is to be found within the book of Genesis then Utu can only be Ham, the third son of Noah who is described negatively in Genesis. On the other hand, within Sumerian mythology, specifically Enki and the World Order, we find that Utu/Ham is glorified:”Enki placed in charge of the whole of heaven and earth the hero, the bull who comes out of the ašur forest bellowing truculently,the youth Utu, the bull standing triumphantly, audaciously, majestically, the father of the Great City, the great herald in the east of holy An, the judge who searches out verdicts for the gods, with a lapis-lazuli beard, rising from the horizon into the holy heavens.”

Utu became known as the Sun God in Sumerian mythology and the god of Truth and Justice. In the Akkadian language Utu was known as Shamash. It was Ham’s grandson Nimrod who was responsible for the Tower of Babel, and we have already shown how this is portrayed in Sumerian myth as Enmerkar’s attempt to renovate the Holy Abzu of Eridu in honor of Enki. In the descriptions of the role given to Utu by Enki, we can perhaps read how the young Ham (the youth Utu) left the home of his father Noah (which was a mountainous land of forests), in a fury of indignation (bellowing truculently) because of what he perceived to be an unjust verdict against himself and his son. Then Enki appears, offering flattering words and deceitful promises, after which we find that Ham becomes deified by Enki as the Sun and God of Justice! In Egyptian myth we find that Ham is most likely represented as the god Horus. This may sound confusing on the surface, because Horus is usually viewed as the son of Osiris, who has been shown to be Nimrod, the grandson of Ham. The problem is resolved once we realize that the earliest Egyptian myths describe Horus as either the brother or uncle of Osiris. Eventually two separate Horus identities appeared whom Plutarch refers to as “Horus the Elder” and “Horus the Younger,” the latter being the well-known son of Osiris and the great unifier of Egypt. This interpretation makes sense because the facts show that the cult of Horus was well-known some time before the cult of Osiris was established. The worship of Horus dates back to Pre-Dynastic times to the “Falcon City” of Nekhen, while concrete evidence for the worship of Osiris first appears only in the Fourth Dynasty.

[….]

It seems that at every important stage of the book of Genesis we find a description of events very similar to pagan accounts, but the interpretation of the events is given a completely opposite spin. What can account for the fact that the Hebrews, a seemingly insignificant tribe of refugees fleeing from Egypt, would seek to create a history of creation and civilization that repeatedly contradicted the way in which the surrounding nations viewed the very same history? The next section will help to answer this question.

God Against Gods

After the account of the indiscretion of Ham the book of Genesis continues in chapter ten with a listing of seventy of the descendents of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the three sons of Noah. At the end of this listing is an explanation:”and out of these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.” Chapter eleven then continues with the story that helps to explain exactly how these nations were separated, which is the story of the Tower of Babel. Hebrew tradition, as well as Josephus, maintains that this episode was directed by Nimrod, whose empire included virtually the entire civilized world. At his prodding the people of the earth said “Come, let us build for ourselves a city, and a tower whose top will reach into heaven, and let us make for ourselves a name, otherwise we will be scattered abroad over the face of the earth.”

According to Genesis the building of the city and the tower was begun for two reasons: 1) To”make for ourselves a name,” and 2) To establish a base from which to resist the divine command given in Genesis 9 as part of the Noachide Covenant to”multiply and fill the earth.” As a result of this disobedience Genesis 11:5 explains that the Lord “came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built.” God’s response to the situation is explained in Genesis 11:6-7, which included an appeal from God to His heavenly host: “The Lord said, ‘Behold, they are one people and they all have the same language. And this is what they began to do, and now nothing which they purpose to do will be impossible for them. Come, let us go down and there confuse their language so that they will not understand one another’s speech.'”

The Book of Jasher is a non-canonical book that is mentioned in Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18, and it explains the identity of the “us” that God refers to in Genesis 11, “And they built the tower and the city, and they did this thing daily until many days and years were elapsed. And God said to the seventy angels who stood foremost before him, to those who were near to him, saying, ‘Come let us descend and confuse their tongues, that one man shall not understand the language of his neighbor,’ and they did so unto them.” (Jasher 9:31)

This strange episode was concluded after these”angels” agreed to God’s invitation to make a”descent” from heaven to earth. The final result is given in Genesis 11:8-9, which explains how the people of the earth who resisted being scattered were forced to meet the terms of the Noachide Covenant of Genesis 9:
“So the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of the earth; and they stopped building the city. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of the whole earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of the whole earth.”

[….]

The book of Genesis does not elaborate on how these descending angels affected mankind at the time of the division of the nations. In fact, the explanation of this event does not appear until the book of Deuteronomy where it can be found within the final speech that Moses gave to the people of Israel just prior to his death: “When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, he set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God.” (Deuteronomy 32:8)

These “sons of God” were members of the”heavenly host” of angelic beings that God originally created to help manage the earth and all creation. This explanation for these “sons of God” is clarified by an old Jewish Targum on this text found in a manuscript known as Pseudo-Jonathan.

“When the Most High made allotment of the world unto the nations which proceeded from the sons of Noach, in the separation of the writings and languages of the children of men at the time of the division, He cast the lot among the seventy angels, the princes of the nations.”

The decision to divide the nations of the world took place in a “Divine Council” setting, with God consulting with a council of seventy “sons of God”before arriving at a decision. The “sons of God” are advanced beings, also known as “angels,” and because they were created with Free Will not all of them have always acted in obedience with God and His divine plan. The seventy “sons of God” who appeared before God at this particular Divine Council to come to an agreement with God regarding the problem of the Tower of Babel were rebel angels whose interaction with humanity far pre-dated the Flood. In other words, they were a dissident faction of angels who thought they could manage humanity much better than God could. To deal with the problem of Enki’s domination of the world through Nimrod and his empire God decided to allow these angels a chance to prove their argument. The end result was that the world was divided up according to”the number of the sons of God.”

“Seventy” was the number of members within this particular angelic faction, which is why the Table of Nations of Genesis 10 lists exactly seventy descendents of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, who made up the nations that “were separated on the earth after the flood.” From God’s perspective, a situation in which humanity was united against God under the control of Satan and Nimrod was exchanged for a situation in which humanity was divided against God under the control of the seventy fallen angelic”princes.”

[….]

The disappearance of YHWH from human affairs, through the transfer of direct authority over humanity to the “fallen angels,” can be deduced by the existence of so-called “otiose” deities at thehead of the pantheons of the pagan world. For instance, most scholars refer to the Sumerian god Anu as an “otiose Deity.” He was the head of the Sumerian pantheon, but he did not actually do anything, and the Sumerians had very few, if any, representations of him, despite the fact that temples were built in his honor, such as the one excavated by Sir Leonard Wooley at Ur.

In Canaanite mythology, which is known to us from the Ugaritic texts of Ras Shamra, the “otiose deity” is the great god El. The primary Canaanite myth known asThe Baal Cycle characterizes El as a deity far removed from human affairs, who falls into a dispute with his wife when he is faced with promoting one of his sons to the position of active leader of the pantheon. According to Ugaritic accounts, and this is a very significant point, the number of El’s sons was exactly seventy.

[….]

In conclusion, the Tower of Babel event, more than being simply a fascinating story of how the different languages came to exist, is in fact the place and time where “Paganism” came into existence as a religion and as a system of spiritual control over, and enslavement of, the minds and souls of humanity. In this sense William Bramley was absolutely correct in his characterization of the oppression of humanity at the hands of the “Custodians” when he wrote,
“To keep control over its possession and to maintain Earth as something of a prison, that other civilization [the fallen angels / Custodians] has bred never-ending conflict between human beings, has promoted human spiritual decay, and has erected on Earth conditions of unremitting physical hardship. This situation has existed for thousands of years and it continues today.”

Conclusion

You may click on the links provided to read the above articles in their entirety. The third is 12 pages long, possibly containing more information I could have quoted here. However, the author seems to have a bias that is made evident in the final 5 pages of the article, and I feel what I have quoted is enough to cover the topic of this edition of ‘The Way’.

Based on my research, and the quoted sources above, I feel it can be considered conclusive that:
-Prior to the formation of Judaism by the tribe of Judah, there was only one belief system. The only difference being the names each nation chose for the gods.
-The tribe of Judah, in disagreement with the other tribes of Israel, re-wrote accounts of history; amalgamated the gods into one; and twisted stories, to fit their means.

All things considered, it is fair to assume then, that the serpent isn’t necessarily the evil one; YHWH wishes man to be slaves, whereas the serpent made attempts to free man. It may also be said that, due to amalgamation of the gods, many verses attributed to God are Enlil, while others are Enki.

In the next edition of ‘The Way’ we will see what attributes of Yahweh are Enlil and what are of Enki. We will also see which of these two gods have been amalgamated into Yahweh, and which of the two gods is simply a more ancient name for Yahweh.

The Series
1) The Way: Is Yahweh/Jehovah Satan?

3) The Way: Yahweh, the amalgamated Enlil and Enki

4) The Way: Jesus, the Serpent?

5) The Way: Jesus’ Hidden Message

6) The Way: Gnosis Is Of Jesus, Not Satan

7) The Way: Jesus And The Age of Aquarius

Part 2
1) The Way: In The Beginning

2) The Way: Gnosis In The Bible

3) The Way: The Great Deception

4) The Way: We Are Not Bound By The Old Testament

The sequel, or follow up, to ‘The Way’ is ‘The Hidden Truth’.

The Hidden Truth
1) The Hidden Truth: The Bible And The Brain

2) The Hidden Truth: The Bible And The Pineal Gland

3) The Hidden Truth: Christ Within

4) The Hidden Truth: Revelation Revealed

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The Way: Is Yahweh/Jehovah Satan?

This is the first of ‘The Way’ series. ‘The Way’ will reveal the major alterations made to the Bible, theological and historical coverups – all part of the Great Deception. ‘The Way’ series will also reveal the true meaning of Jesus’ message and how to reach spiritual perfection.

This is not intended to shake your faith, or prove God isn’t real. God is very real. This is simply to help point out the errors the Catholic Church inserted into the text. The institutionalized Church and the canonized Bible are the Great Deception. No matter how hard the early Catholics tried to alter the text, Truth remains. Clues to the true story are hidden in the lies. The Light hidden within the Darkness. As a minister of Christ and follower of ‘The Way’, it is my job to defend Truth and present it to the world. I give you the facts, it is up to you to look into it yourself. Don’t believe it because I say it, believe it because you see it to be true.

Before you read any further, it must be understood I am not attacking God, but defending Him. I am not attacking His Word, but revealing it. I am not seeking to destroy His way, but to preserve it. I am a follower of Yeshua, defender of The Way.

In this edition of ‘The Way’ series, we cover the following topics:
“Old Testament God Is Satan?”, “Old Testament God Is Evil?”, “Prophetic Deception?”, “More Than One God?”, and “Yahweh/Jehovah, the Demiurge?”.

Unless otherwise stated, all verses are from the King James Bible.

Old Testament God Is Satan?

2 Samuel 24:1
“And again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah.”

which in 1 Chronicles 21:1 becomes:
“And Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel.”

Lamentations 3:38-39
Out of the mouth of the most High proceedeth not evil and good? Wherefore doth a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sins?

James has this to say:
James 3:10-12
Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not so to be. Doth a fountain send forth at the same place sweet water and bitter? Can the fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine, figs? so can no fountain both yield salt water and fresh.

From Upliftingcrane’s Blog article titled Old Testament God Jehovah is Satan:

In Hebrew, Je or Jeh or Jah means Lord or God [ref].

The suffix “hovah” is No. 1943 in Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary and has the meaning of “ruin, mischief.”

It is another form of No. 1942, ‘havvah’, which is translated “calamity, iniquity, mischief, mischievous (thing), naughtiness, naughty, noisome, perverse thing, substance, very wickedness.”

Put the two (Je + hovah) together and you get “God of ruin, mischief, calamity, perversion, and wickedness”. And don’t forget ‘noisome‘ – which means it stinks! Simply put, Jehovah is The God of Evil!

[….]

The Wrathful God

“Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken, because he was wroth. There went up a smoke out of his nostrils and fire out of his mouth devoured: coals were kindled by it. He bowed the heavens also, and came down: and darkness was under his feet. And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind. He made darkness his secret place; his pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies.”
(Psalms 18:7-11)

Comment

Consider that these verses describe an angry (wroth) being, spouting smoke and fire, whose secret place consisted of darkness. This devilish entity sounds like a description of Satan, but believe it or not, actually comes from the Bible as describing God.

God rejoices your death

“And it shall come to pass, that as the LORD rejoiced over you to do you good, and to multiply you; so the LORD will rejoice over you to destroy you, and to bring you to nought; and ye shall be plucked from off the land whither thou goest to possess it.”
(Deuteronomy 28:63)

Comment

If the religious mind believes that God represents a loving God, then one must wonder about God, as described in the Bible, who would rejoice to destroy some of his creations.

Should we hold honor to an insane God? The Bible assures us that God possess an evil spirit with hate, and full of wrath, and here he rejoices in destruction! God appears completely devoid of any wit or humor; a mental state that psychologists have observed in many schizophrenics.

Fire Of God

“Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench.”
(I Kings 18:38)

Comment

We get told that Satan involves himself with the eternal consuming fire, yet the Bible makes it abundantly clear that hell fire comes directly from God.

The Evil Spirit Of The Lord, 2

“And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David played with his hand.”
(I Samuel 19:9)

Comment

Consider that many modern Judeo-Christians consider God the opposite of evil, yet here we have, again, the clear Biblical wording of evil coming from the LORD.

In early Christian history, several Gnostic cults believed that the orthodox Church as well as the Old Testament, came from Satan. The Church, of course, labeled these Gnostics as heretics and burned their books as well as the heretics themselves.

Reading the Old Testament appears to affirm the observation that God and Satan, if not one in the same, at least work as a team.

Old Testament God is evil?

We are taught that good comes from God and evil comes from Satan. Well, let’s take a look. Shall we?

Deuteronomy 28:63
And it shall come to pass, that as the LORD rejoiced over you to do you good, and to multiply you; so the LORD will rejoice over you to destroy you, and to bring you to nought; and ye shall be plucked from off the land whither thou goest to possess it.

1 Samuel 16:23
And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him

2 Samuel 12:11
Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thine own house, and I will take thy wives before thine eyes, and give them unto thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun.

1 Kings 14:10
therefore, behold, I will bring evil upon the house of Jeroboam, and will cut off from Jeroboam him that pisseth against the wall, and him that is shut up and left in Israel, and will take away the remnant of the house of Jeroboam, as a man taketh away dung, till it be all gone.

1 Kings 21:21
Behold, I will bring evil upon thee, and will take away thy posterity, and will cut off from Ahab him that pisseth against the wall, and him that is shut up and left in Israel

Isaiah 45:7
I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things.

Prophetic Deception?

Joshua 10:11
And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Beth-horon, that the LORD cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.

becomes…

Revelation 16:21
And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

It’s alleged Joshua 10:11 happened, while Revelation 16:21 is our future. Yet they are the same verse.

More Than One God?

From the article Many Gods in the Old Testament we read:

This is really a deep subject, and if one looks at it from a different viewpoint than one grew up with it is really difficult to deal with.   A recurring thought is, what if the one God gets so angry with me that He strikes me dead;  worse yet, what if, because of what I am writing, He bars me from heaven.  However, I take comfort in the fact that I am writing things that the Bible clearly teaches.  I am not concocting any fabulous theories.  Based on what the Bible teaches I am portraying only facts.  With that in mind, we continue.

Notice these two Bible verses:
Genesis 19:24  Then the Lord rained on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven.
Exodus 15:11 Our Lord, no other gods compare with you.
Hosea 1:7  I, [the Lord], (first person) will deliver them by the Lord their God (third person).

These three verses very distinctly speak of more than one god.  Some of the newer translations rearrange Geneses 19:24 in such a way that the Lord is mentioned only once.  Was this change made because the translators could not grapple with the teaching that there is more than one God?  When I wrote about the Bible, (when I first started blogging) I wrote that changes like this were being made to the Bible so that the Bible would agree with the translator’s theology.  Some would rather change the Bible then change their own preset conclusions! Abraham … dwelt on the other side of the river in old times: and they served other gods. Joshua 24:2.  The word we notice here is “gods” and it is the same word that is used in Genesis chapter one, (about the Gods which created heaven and earth), and in many other incidents throughout the Old Testament.  The gods are written about in plural, and as was already mentioned, the word gods does not always refer to idols.

The Psalmist said, For the Lord is a great God, and a great King above all gods. Psalm 95:3.  Again, the word “gods” here, is the same word used in Genesis chapter one, speaking about a collective, creative group of gods.  

O Israel, listen: Jehovah is our God, Jehovah alone. Deut. 6:4 (The Living Bible) Many theologians have used Deut. 6:4 to prove, from the Bible, that there is only one God (Jehovah), whereas it explicitly states the exact opposite.  What it actually says is that there are other Gods, but for Israel, there is to be only one God; His name is Jehovah.  Therefore, for all practical purposes, as far as praise and faith are concerned, for Muslims, for Jews and for The Church, it is not wrong to declare that there is only one God.  However, among those who want to be true to the Bible, it must be agreed, that the Bible distinctly teaches the existence of other Gods than Jehovah.

Wikipedia writes, Recognized scholars have formulated a substantial case for ancient Israel’s practice of Monolatry.  The book of Exodus, in fact none of “The Law”, denies the existence of other Gods.  However, it does make a strong issue of the fact that the Jews are to follow and worship only Jehovah.  We recall, from a few posts ago, that monolatry means, to worship one.  This viewpoint recognizes the existence of a plurality of actual gods, but insists that there is only one God worthy of worship.   For the Christian church that One is Jehovah.

Why don’t we try and let the Bible speak for itself, even if it means that we have to “think again” about the basics that we have learned in the church, in the mosque, or in the temple.

Another source for this is Problem: The Old Testament mentions multiple gods Verses: Multiple; Status: Minor and The God of the Old Testament vs The Father of the New Testament

Yahweh/Jehovah, the Demiurge?

Before we look at this, let’s be clear what a demiurge is. From the Merriam-Webster dictionary we see:

Etymology: Late Latin demiurgus, from Greek dēmiourgos, literally, artisan, one with special skill, from dēmios of the people (from dēmos people) + -ourgos — worker (from ergon work)
1 capitalized (a) : a Platonic subordinate deity who fashions the sensible world in the light of eternal ideas (b) : a Gnostic subordinate deity who is the creator of the material world
2 : one that is an autonomous creative force or decisive power

Understanding what a demiurge is, understanding the plurality of a collective creative force, understanding that several locations of the text refers to God as “We”, “Us”, and “gods”, and understanding that Yahweh or Jehovah implies he is the only god worthy of worship, it seems as though Jehovah is in fact a demiurge.

Conclusion

Looking at the evidence, I believe the answer is conclusive. The answer is Yahweh/Jehovah is a demiurge. He is in fact a god, but one of many. He is a lesser god to the Supreme or Most High.

As being the creator of everything physical, he sought to be the god of the creation. To make himself “as the Most High”. To be sure he could accomplish this, he forbade creation from knowing itself and the Most High – the God of all that is. To keep creation from this seemingly small, yet largely significant fact, he issued laws and regulations – enforcing them through fear. He essentially made all of creation, especially mankind, his slaves.

The Most High naturally did not appreciate one of it’s own creations turning against it. But not only going against the Most High, but enslaving the very creation the demiurge was set forth to create. So the Most High did what any loving parent would do. Reprimanded the demiurge and set out to free creation from servitude to the demiurge.

This sparked a huge argument in the Heavens and the “war of the gods”. The story has since been twisted by man.

The Catholic Church-fathers, seeing themselves as gods. rewrote and created the Old and New testaments in such a way to transform the story and keep us, their followers, in line as obedient little slaves. They wrote Yahweh/Jehovah to be the one and only god, altered out the other gods, inserted new text and removed other. However, they couldn’t completely remove the Truth. If you look at the text closely, you see the war of the Most High and the demiurge, how the story was twisted, and just exactly Satan is.

It was deliberately written to be confusing, to give all authority to the governments and Church leadership, and to make us willing slaves to the demiurge and his subordinates. Todays institutional Church, the percieved Bible, and belief it is wrong to question are all part of the “Great Deception”. Yahweh/Jehovah is in fact Satan. And he has successfully destroyed the True Church for the better part of 1700yrs, successfully decieved the masses, and is now successfully exterminating Christians around the globe.

The Series
2) The Way: Two Gods in the Old Testament

3) The Way: Yahweh, the amalgamated Enlil and Enki

4) The Way: Jesus, the Serpent?

5) The Way: Jesus’ Hidden Message

6) The Way: Gnosis Is Of Jesus, Not Satan

7) The Way: Jesus And The Age of Aquarius

Part 2
1) The Way: In The Beginning

2) The Way: Gnosis In The Bible

3) The Way: The Great Deception

4) The Way: We Are Not Bound By The Old Testament

The sequel, or follow up, to ‘The Way’ is ‘The Hidden Truth’.

The Hidden Truth
1) The Hidden Truth: The Bible And The Brain

2) The Hidden Truth: The Bible And The Pineal Gland

3) The Hidden Truth: Christ Within

4) The Hidden Truth: Revelation Revealed

The Hebrews And Moses [UBS #12]

As stated in Introduction To “UBS” Study the following is: My opinions posted on this part of the study may or may not be my final feeling on the matter. I’ll be writing (or recording video) as I go, so it’s inevitable that some concepts may not have long enough to settle in my mind so a final thought or feeling can be reached. Some new and non-institutional concepts are going to be introduced, compared to the Bible, looked at with logic, and commented on. Whether or not you agree with these concepts are completely irrelevant. The purpose of this study is not whether you or I agree with the said study or with each other, but to help bring us closer to each other as brethren and ultimately closer to God. Your participation in this study is welcome and will be greatly appreciated.

The progress of the Hebrews from polytheism through henotheism to monotheism was not an unbroken and continuous conceptual development. They experienced many retrogressions in the evolution of their Deity concepts, while during any one epoch there existed varying ideas of God among different groups of Semite believers. From time to time numerous terms were applied to their concepts of God, and in order to prevent confusion these various Deity titles will be defined as they pertain to the evolution of Jewish theology:
1. Yahweh was the god of the southern Palestinian tribes, who associated this concept of deity with Mount Horeb, the Sinai volcano. Yahweh was merely one of the hundreds and thousands of nature gods which held the attention and claimed the worship of the Semitic tribes and peoples.
2. El Elyon. For centuries after Melchizedek’s sojourn at Salem his doctrine of Deity persisted in various versions but was generally connoted by the term El Elyon, the Most High God of heaven. Many Semites, including the immediate descendants of Abraham, at various times worshiped both Yahweh and El Elyon.
3. El Shaddai. It is difficult to explain what El Shaddai stood for. This idea of God was a composite derived from the teachings of Amenemope’s Book of Wisdom modified by Ikhnaton’s doctrine of Aton and further influenced by Melchizedek’s teachings embodied in the concept of El Elyon. But as the concept of El Shaddai permeated the Hebrew mind, it became thoroughly colored with the Yahweh beliefs of the desert. One of the dominant ideas of the religion of this era was the Egyptian concept of divine Providence, the teaching that material prosperity was a reward for serving El Shaddai.
4. El. Amid all this confusion of terminology and haziness of concept, many devout believers sincerely endeavored to worship all of these evolving ideas of divinity, and there grew up the practice of referring to this composite Deity as El. And this term included still other of the Bedouin nature gods.
5. Elohim. In Kish and Ur there long persisted Sumerian-Chaldean groups who taught a three-in-one God concept founded on the traditions of the days of Adam and Melchizedek. This doctrine was carried to Egypt, where this Trinity was worshiped under the name of Elohim, or in the singular as Eloah. The philosophic circles of Egypt and later Alexandrian teachers of Hebraic extraction taught this unity of pluralistic Gods, and many of Moses’ advisers at the time of the exodus believed in this Trinity. But the concept of the trinitarian Elohim never became a real part of Hebrew theology until after they had come under the political influence of the Babylonians.
6. Sundry names. The Semites disliked to speak the name of their Deity, and they therefore resorted to numerous appellations from time to time, such as: The Spirit of God, The Lord, The Angel of the Lord, The Almighty, The Holy One, The Most High, Adonai, The Ancient of Days, The Lord God of Israel, The Creator of Heaven and Earth, Kyrios, Jah, The Lord of Hosts, and The Father in Heaven. Jehovah is a term which in recent times has been employed to designate the completed concept of Yahweh which finally evolved in the long Hebrew experience. But the name Jehovah did not come into use until fifteen hundred years after the times of Jesus.

The Canaanites had long revered Yahweh, and although many of the Kenites believed more or less in El Elyon, the supergod of the Salem religion, a majority of the Canaanites held loosely to the worship of the old tribal deities. They were hardly willing to abandon their national deities in favor of an international, not to say an interplanetary, God. They were not universal-deity minded, and therefore these tribes continued to worship their tribal deities, including Yahweh and the silver and golden calves which symbolized the Bedouin herders’ concept of the spirit of the Sinai volcano. The Syrians, while worshiping their gods, also believed in Yahweh of the Hebrews, for their prophets said to the Syrian king: “Their gods are gods of the hills; therefore they were stronger than we; but let us fight against them on the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they.” (1 Kings 20:23)

The idea of Yahweh has undergone the most extensive development of all the mortal theories of God. Its progressive evolution can only be compared with the metamorphosis of the Buddha concept in Asia, which in the end led to the concept of the Universal Absolute even as the Yahweh concept finally led to the idea of the Universal Father. But as a matter of historic fact, it should be understood that, while the Jews thus changed their views of Deity from the tribal god of Mount Horeb to the loving and merciful Creator Father of later times, they did not change his name; they continued all the way along to call this evolving concept of Deity, Yahweh.

The Semitic Peoples
The Semites of the East were well-organized and well-led horsemen who invaded the eastern regions of the fertile crescent and there united with the Babylonians. The Chaldeans near Ur were among the most advanced of the eastern Semites. The Phoenicians were a superior and well-organized group of mixed Semites who held the western section of Palestine, along the Mediterranean coast. Racially the Semites were among the most blended of the peoples, containing hereditary factors from almost all of the nine world races. Again and again the Arabian Semites fought their way into the northern Promised Land, the land that “flowed with milk and honey,” (Exodus 3:8) but just as often were they ejected by the better-organized and more highly civilized northern Semites and Hittites. Later, during an unusually severe famine, these roving Bedouins entered Egypt in large numbers as contract laborers on the Egyptian public works, only to find themselves undergoing the bitter experience of enslavement at the hard daily toil of the common and downtrodden laborers of the Nile valley.

It was only after the days of Machiventa Melchizedek and Abraham that certain tribes of Semites, because of their peculiar religious beliefs, were called the children of Israel and later on Hebrews, Jews, and the “chosen people.” Abraham was not the racial father of all the Hebrews; he was not even the progenitor of all the Bedouin Semites who were held captive in Egypt. True, his offspring, coming up out of Egypt, did form the nucleus of the later Jewish people, but the vast majority of the men and women who became incorporated into the clans of Israel had never sojourned in Egypt. They were merely fellow nomads who chose to follow the leadership of Moses as the children of Abraham and their Semite associates from Egypt journeyed through northern Arabia. Yahweh was worshiped by more than one hundred separate Arabian tribes, and except for the tinge of the El Elyon concept of Melchizedek which persisted among the more educated classes of Egypt, including the mixed Hebrew and Egyptian stocks, the religion of the rank and file of the Hebrew captive slaves was a modified version of the old Yahweh ritual of magic and sacrifice.

Moses
The beginning of the evolution of the Hebraic concepts and ideals of a Supreme Creator dates from the departure of the Semites from Egypt under that great leader, teacher, and organizer, Moses. His mother was of the royal family of Egypt; his father was a Semitic liaison officer between the government and the Bedouin captives. Moses thus possessed qualities derived from superior racial sources; his ancestry was so highly blended that it is impossible to classify him in any one racial group. Had he not been of this mixed type, he would never have displayed that unusual versatility and adaptability which enabled him to manage the diversified horde which eventually became associated with those Bedouin Semites who fled from Egypt to the Arabian Desert under his leadership. Despite the enticements of the culture of the Nile kingdom, Moses elected to cast his lot with the people of his father. At the time this great organizer was formulating his plans for the eventual freeing of his father’s people, the Bedouin captives hardly had a religion worthy of the name; they were virtually without a true concept of God and without hope in the world.

Moses endeavored to negotiate diplomatically for the freedom of his fellow Semites. He and his brother entered into a compact with the king of Egypt whereby they were granted permission peaceably to leave the valley of the Nile for the Arabian Desert. They were to receive a modest payment of money and goods in token of their long service in Egypt. The Hebrews for their part entered into an agreement to maintain friendly relations with the Pharaohs and not to join in any alliance against Egypt. But the king later saw fit to repudiate this treaty, giving as his reason the excuse that his spies had discovered disloyalty among the Bedouin slaves. He claimed they sought freedom for the purpose of going into the desert to organize the nomads against Egypt. But Moses was not discouraged; he bided his time, and in less than a year, when the Egyptian military forces were fully occupied in resisting the simultaneous onslaughts of a strong Libyan thrust from the south and a Greek naval invasion from the north, this intrepid organizer led his compatriots out of Egypt in a spectacular night flight. This dash for liberty was carefully planned and skillfully executed. And they were successful, notwithstanding that they were hotly pursued by Pharaoh and a small body of Egyptians, who all fell before the fugitives’ defense, yielding much booty, all of which was augmented by the loot of the advancing host of escaping slaves as they marched on toward their ancestral desert home.

Moses had heard of the teachings of Machiventa Melchizedek from both his father and his mother, their commonness of religious belief being the explanation for the unusual union between a woman of royal blood and a man from a captive race. Moses’ father-in-law was a Kenite worshiper of El Elyon, but the emancipator’s parents were believers in El Shaddai. Moses thus was educated an El Shaddaist; through the influence of his father-in-law he became an El Elyonist; and by the time of the Hebrew encampment about Mount Sinai after the flight from Egypt, he had formulated a new and enlarged concept of Deity (derived from all his former beliefs), which he wisely decided to proclaim to his people as an expanded concept of their olden tribal god, Yahweh.

Moses had endeavored to teach these Bedouins the idea of El Elyon, but before leaving Egypt, he had become convinced they would never fully comprehend this doctrine. Therefore he deliberately determined upon the compromise adoption of their tribal god of the desert as the one and only god of his followers. Moses did not specifically teach that other peoples and nations might not have other gods, but he did resolutely maintain that Yahweh was over and above all, especially to the Hebrews. But always was he plagued by the awkward predicament of trying to present his new and higher idea of Deity to these ignorant slaves under the guise of the ancient term Yahweh, which had always been symbolized by the golden calf of the Bedouin tribes. The fact that Yahweh was the god of the fleeing Hebrews explains why they tarried so long before the holy mountain of Sinai, and why they there received the ten commandments which Moses promulgated in the name of Yahweh, the god of Horeb. (Exodus chap. 20) During this lengthy sojourn before Sinai the religious ceremonials of the newly evolving Hebrew worship were further perfected.

It does not appear that Moses would ever have succeeded in the establishment of his somewhat advanced ceremonial worship and in keeping his followers intact for a quarter of a century had it not been for the violent eruption of Horeb during the third week of their worshipful sojourn at its base. “The mountain of Yahweh was consumed in fire, and the smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly.” (Exodus 20:18) In view of this cataclysm it is not surprising that Moses could impress upon his brethren the teaching that their God was “mighty, terrible, a devouring fire, fearful, and all-powerful.” (Exodus 24:17; Isa. 29:6)

Moses made a heroic effort to uplift Yahweh to the dignity of a supreme Deity when he presented him as the “God of truth and without iniquity, just and right in all his ways.” (Deut. 32:4) And yet, despite this exalted teaching, the limited understanding of his followers made it necessary to speak of God as being in man’s image, as being subject to fits of anger, wrath, and severity, even that he was vengeful and easily influenced by man’s conduct. Under the teachings of Moses this tribal nature god, Yahweh, became the Lord God of Israel, who followed them through the wilderness and even into exile, where he presently was conceived of as the God of all peoples. The later captivity that enslaved the Jews in Babylon finally liberated the evolving concept of Yahweh to assume the monotheistic role of the God of all nations.

While Moses presented fleeting glimpses of a universal and beneficent Deity to the children of Israel, on the whole, their day-by-day concept of Yahweh was that of a God but little better than the tribal gods of the surrounding peoples. Their concept of God was primitive, crude, and anthropomorphic; when Moses passed on, these Bedouin tribes quickly reverted to the semibarbaric ideas of their olden gods of Horeb and the desert. The enlarged and more sublime vision of God which Moses every now and then presented to his leaders was soon lost to view, while most of the people turned to the worship of their fetish golden calves, the Palestinian herdsman’s symbol of Yahweh. When Moses turned over the command of the Hebrews to Joshua, he had already gathered up thousands of the collateral descendants of Abraham, Nahor, Lot, and other of the related tribes and had whipped them into a self-sustaining and partially self-regulating nation of pastoral warriors.

After Moses
Upon the death of Moses his lofty concept of Yahweh rapidly deteriorated. Joshua and the leaders of Israel continued to harbor the Mosaic traditions of the all-wise, beneficent, and almighty God, but the common people rapidly reverted to the older desert idea of Yahweh. And this backward drift of the concept of Deity continued increasingly under the successive rule of the various tribal sheiks, the so-called Judges.

The spell of the extraordinary personality of Moses had kept alive in the hearts of his followers the inspiration of an increasingly enlarged concept of God; but when they once reached the fertile lands of Palestine, they quickly evolved from nomadic herders into settled and somewhat sedate farmers. And this evolution of life practices and change of religious viewpoint demanded a more or less complete change in the character of their conception of the nature of their God, Yahweh. During the times of the beginning of the transmutation of the austere, crude, exacting, and thunderous desert god of Sinai into the later appearing concept of a God of love, justice, and mercy, the Hebrews almost lost sight of Moses’ lofty teachings. They came near losing all concept of monotheism; they nearly lost their opportunity of becoming the people who would serve as a vital link in the spiritual evolution of Earth, the group who would conserve the Melchizedek teaching of one God until the times of the incarnation of a bestowal Son of that Father of all.

Desperately Joshua sought to hold the concept of a supreme Yahweh in the minds of the tribesmen, causing it to be proclaimed: “As I was with Moses, so will I be with you; I will not fail you nor forsake you.” (Josh. 1:5) Joshua found it necessary to preach a stern gospel to his disbelieving people, people all too willing to believe their old and native religion but unwilling to go forward in the religion of faith and righteousness. The burden of Joshua’s teaching became: “Yahweh is a holy God; he is a jealous God; he will not forgive your transgressions nor your sins.” (Josh. 24:19) The highest concept of this age pictured Yahweh as a “God of power, judgment, and justice.” But even in this dark age, every now and then a solitary teacher would arise proclaiming the Mosaic concept of divinity: “You children of wickedness cannot serve the Lord, for he is a holy God.” “Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his Maker?” “Can you by searching find out God? Can you find out the Almighty to perfection? Behold, God is great and we know him not. Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out.”

Psalms and the Book of Job
Under the leadership of their sheiks and priests the Hebrews became loosely established in Palestine. But they soon drifted back into the benighted beliefs of the desert and became contaminated with the less advanced Canaanite religious practices. They became idolatrous and licentious, and their idea of Deity fell far below the Egyptian and Mesopotamian concepts of God that were maintained by certain surviving Salem groups, and which are recorded in some of the Psalms and in the so-called Book of Job. The Psalms are the work of a score or more of authors; many were written by Egyptian and Mesopotamian teachers. During these times when the Levant worshiped nature gods, there were still a goodly number who believed in the supremacy of El Elyon, the Most High.

The variegated picture of Deity presented in the Book of Job was the product of more than a score of Mesopotamian religious teachers extending over a period of almost three hundred years. And when you read the lofty concept of divinity found in this compilation of Mesopotamian beliefs, you will recognize that it was in the neighborhood of Ur of Chaldea that the idea of a real God was best preserved during the dark days in Palestine.

And thus did the remnants of the Salem missionaries in Mesopotamia maintain the light of truth during the period of the disorganization of the Hebrew peoples until the appearance of the first of that long line of the teachers of Israel who never stopped as they built, concept upon concept, until they had achieved the realization of the ideal of the Universal and Creator Father of all, the acme of the evolution of the Yahweh concept.

Samuel —First of the Hebrew Prophets
Hostile pressure of the surrounding peoples in Palestine soon taught the Hebrew sheiks they could not hope to survive unless they confederated their tribal organizations into a centralized government. And this centralization of administrative authority afforded a better opportunity for Samuel to function as a teacher and reformer. Samuel sprang from a long line of the Salem teachers who had persisted in maintaining the truths of Melchizedek as a part of their worship forms. This teacher was a virile and resolute man. Only his great devotion, coupled with his extraordinary determination, enabled him to withstand the almost universal opposition which he encountered when he started out to turn all Israel back to the worship of the supreme Yahweh of Mosaic times. And even then he was only partially successful; he won back to the service of the higher concept of Yahweh only the more intelligent half of the Hebrews; the other half continued in the worship of the tribal gods of the country and in the baser conception of Yahweh. Samuel was a rough-and-ready type of man, a practical reformer who could go out in one day with his associates and overthrow a score of Baal sites. The progress he made was by sheer force of compulsion; he did little preaching, less teaching, but he did act. One day he was mocking the priest of Baal; the next, chopping in pieces a captive king. He devotedly believed in the one God, and he had a clear concept of that one God as creator of heaven and earth: “The pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he has set the world upon them.” (1 Samuel 2:8)

But the great contribution which Samuel made to the development of the concept of Deity was his ringing pronouncement that Yahweh was changeless, forever the same embodiment of unerring perfection and divinity. In these times Yahweh was conceived to be a fitful God of jealous whims, always regretting that he had done thus and so; but now, for the first time since the Hebrews sallied forth from Egypt, they heard these startling words, “The Strength of Israel will not lie nor repent, for he is not a man, that he should repent.” (1 Samuel 15:29) Stability in dealing with Divinity was proclaimed. Samuel reiterated the Melchizedek covenant with Abraham and declared that the Lord God of Israel was the source of all truth, stability, and constancy. Always had the Hebrews looked upon their God as a man, a superman, an exalted spirit of unknown origin; but now they heard the onetime spirit of Horeb exalted as an unchanging God of creator perfection. Samuel was aiding the evolving God concept to ascend to heights above the changing state of men’s minds and the vicissitudes of mortal existence. Under his teaching, the God of the Hebrews was beginning the ascent from an idea on the order of the tribal gods to the ideal of an all-powerful and changeless Creator and Supervisor of all creation.

It was a great shock to Israel, and almost cost Samuel his life, when he dared to proclaim: “The Lord enriches and impoverishes; he debases and exalts. He raises the poor out of the dust and lifts up the beggars to set them among princes to make them inherit the throne of glory.” (1 Samuel 2:8) Not since Moses had such comforting promises for the humble and the less fortunate been proclaimed, and thousands of despairing among the poor began to take hope that they could improve their spiritual status. But Samuel did not progress very far beyond the concept of a tribal god. He proclaimed a Yahweh who made all men but was occupied chiefly with the Hebrews, his chosen people. Even so, as in the days of Moses, once more the God concept portrayed a Deity who is holy and upright. “There is none as holy as the Lord. Who can be compared to this holy Lord God?” (1 Samuel 10:24)

The keynote of this era was divine power; the prophets of this age preached a religion designed to foster the king upon the Hebrew throne. “Yours, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty. In your hand is power and might, and you are able to make great and to give strength to all.” And this was the status of the God concept during the time of Samuel and his immediate successors.

Elija and Elisha
In the tenth century before Christ the Hebrew nation became divided into two kingdoms. In both of these political divisions many truth teachers endeavored to stem the reactionary tide of spiritual decadence that had set in, and which continued disastrously after the war of separation. But these efforts to advance the Hebraic religion did not prosper until that determined and fearless warrior for righteousness, Elijah, began his teaching. Elijah restored to the northern kingdom a concept of God comparable with that held in the days of Samuel. Elijah had little opportunity to present an advanced concept of God; he was kept busy, as Samuel had been before him, overthrowing the altars of Baal and demolishing the idols of false gods. And he carried forward his reforms in the face of the opposition of an idolatrous monarch; his task was even more gigantic and difficult than that which Samuel had faced.

When Elijah was called away, Elisha, his faithful associate, took up his work and, with the invaluable assistance of the little-known Micaiah, kept the light of truth alive in Palestine. But these were not times of progress in the concept of Deity. Not yet had the Hebrews ascended even to the Mosaic ideal. The era of Elijah and Elisha closed with the better classes returning to the worship of the supreme Yahweh and witnessed the restoration of the idea of the Universal Creator to about that place where Samuel had left it.

Yahweh and Baal
The long-drawn-out controversy between the believers in Yahweh and the followers of Baal was a socioeconomic clash of ideologies rather than a difference in religious beliefs. The inhabitants of Palestine differed in their attitude toward private ownership of land. The southern or wandering Arabian tribes (the Yahwehites) looked upon land as an inalienable —as a gift of Deity to the clan. They held that land could not be sold or mortgaged. “Yahweh spoke, saying, ‘The land shall not be sold, for the land is mine.’” (Lev. 25:23) The northern and more settled Canaanites (the Baalites) freely bought, sold, and mortgaged their lands. The word Baal means owner. The Baal cult was founded on two major doctrines: First, the validation of property exchange, contracts, and covenants —the right to buy and sell land. Second, Baal was supposed to send rain —he was a god of fertility of the soil. Good crops depended on the favor of Baal. The cult was largely concerned with land, its ownership and fertility.

Out of this basic difference in the regard for land, there evolved the bitter antagonisms of social, economic, moral, and religious attitudes exhibited by the Canaanites and the Hebrews. This socioeconomic controversy did not become a definite religious issue until the times of Elijah. From the days of this aggressive prophet the issue was fought out on more strictly religious lines —Yahweh vs. Baal —and it ended in the triumph of Yahweh and the subsequent drive toward monotheism. Elijah shifted the Yahweh-Baal controversy from the land issue to the religious aspect of Hebrew and Canaanite ideologies. When Ahab murdered the Naboths in the intrigue to get possession of their land, Elijah made a moral issue out of the olden land mores and launched his vigorous campaign against the Baalites. This was also a fight of the country folk against domination by the cities. It was chiefly under Elijah that Yahweh became Elohim. The prophet began as an agrarian reformer and ended up by exalting Deity. Baals were many, Yahweh was one —monotheism won over polytheism.

Amos and Hosea
Amos was not merely a restorer or reformer; he was a discoverer of new concepts of Deity. He proclaimed much about God that had been announced by his predecessors and courageously attacked the belief in a Divine Being who would countenance sin among his so-called chosen people. For the first time since the days of Melchizedek the ears of man heard the denunciation of the double standard of national justice and morality. For the first time in their history Hebrew ears heard that their own God, Yahweh, would no more tolerate crime and sin in their lives than he would among any other people. Amos envisioned the stern and just God of Samuel and Elijah, but he also saw a God who thought no differently of the Hebrews than of any other nation when it came to the punishment of wrongdoing. This was a direct attack on the egoistic doctrine of the “chosen people,” and many Hebrews of those days bitterly resented it.

Said Amos: “He who formed the mountains and created the wind, seek him who formed the seven stars and Orion, who turns the shadow of death into the morning and makes the day dark as night.” And in denouncing his half-religious, timeserving, and sometimes immoral fellows, he sought to portray the inexorable justice of an unchanging Yahweh when he said of the evildoers: “Though they dig into hell, thence shall I take them; though they climb up to heaven, thence will I bring them down.” (Amos 9:2) “And though they go into captivity before their enemies, thence will I direct the sword of justice, and it shall slay them.” (Amos 9:4) Amos further startled his hearers when, pointing a reproving and accusing finger at them, he declared in the name of Yahweh: “Surely I will never forget any of your works.” (Amos 8:7) “And I will sift the house of Israel among all nations as wheat is sifted in a sieve.” (Amos 9:9) Amos proclaimed Yahweh the “God of all nations” and warned the Israelites that ritual must not take the place of righteousness. And before this courageous teacher was stoned to death, he had spread enough leaven of truth to save the doctrine of the supreme Yahweh; he had insured the further evolution of the Melchizedek revelation.

Hosea followed Amos and his doctrine of a universal God of justice by the resurrection of the Mosaic concept of a God of love. Hosea preached forgiveness through repentance, not by sacrifice. He proclaimed a gospel of loving-kindness and divine mercy, saying: “I will betroth you to me forever; yes, I will betroth you to me in righteousness and judgment and in loving-kindness and in mercies. I will even betroth you to me in faithfulness.” “I will love them freely, for my anger is turned away.” (Hosea 14:4) Hosea faithfully continued the moral warnings of Amos, saying of God, “It is my desire that I chastise them.” (Hosea 10:10) But the Israelites regarded it as cruelty bordering on treason when he said: “I will say to those who were not my people, ‘you are my people’; and they will say, ‘you are our God.’” (Hosea 2:23) He continued to preach repentance and forgiveness, saying, “I will heal their backsliding; I will love them freely, for my anger is turned away.” (Hosea 14:4) Always Hosea proclaimed hope and forgiveness. The burden of his message ever was: “I will have mercy upon my people. They shall know no God but me, for there is no savior beside me.”

Isaiah
Isaiah went on to preach the eternal nature of God, his infinite wisdom, his unchanging perfection of reliability. He represented the God of Israel as saying: “Judgment also will I lay to the line and righteousness to the plummet.” (Isa. 28:17) “The Lord will give you rest from your sorrow and from your fear and from the hard bondage wherein man has been made to serve.” (Isa. 14:3) “And your ears shall hear a word behind you, saying, ‘this is the way, walk in it.’” (Isa. 30:21) “Behold God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid, for the Lord is my strength and my song.” (Isa. 12:2) “‘Come now and let us reason together,’ says the Lord, ‘though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like the crimson, they shall be as wool.’” (Isa. 1:18)

This Isaiah was followed by Micah and Obadiah, who confirmed and embellished his soul-satisfying gospel. And these two brave messengers boldly denounced the priest-ridden ritual of the Hebrews and fearlessly attacked the whole sacrificial system. Micah denounced “the rulers who judge for reward and the priests who teach for hire and the prophets who divine for money.” (Micah 3:11) He taught of a day of freedom from superstition and priestcraft, saying: “But every man shall sit under his own vine, and no one shall make him afraid, for all people will live, each one according to his understanding of God.”

The destruction of the Hebrew nation and their captivity in Mesopotamia would have proved of great benefit to their expanding theology had it not been for the determined action of their priesthood. Their nation had fallen before the armies of Babylon, and their nationalistic Yahweh had suffered from the international preachments of the spiritual leaders. It was resentment of the loss of their national god that led the Jewish priests to go to such lengths in the invention of fables and the multiplication of miraculous appearing events in Hebrew history in an effort to restore the Jews as the chosen people of even the new and expanded idea of an internationalized God of all nations. During the captivity the Jews were much influenced by Babylonian traditions and legends, although it should be noted that they unfailingly improved the moral tone and spiritual significance of the Chaldean stories which they adopted, notwithstanding that they invariably distorted these legends to reflect honor and glory upon the ancestry and history of Israel.

The Jewish priesthood made liberal use of these writings subsequent to the captivity, but they were greatly hindered in their influence over their fellow captives by the presence of a young and indomitable prophet, Isaiah the second, who was a full convert to the elder Isaiah’s God of justice, love, righteousness, and mercy. He also believed with Jeremiah that Yahweh had become the God of all nations. He preached these theories of the nature of God with such telling effect that he made converts equally among the Jews and their captors. And this young preacher left on record his teachings, which the hostile and unforgiving priests sought to divorce from all association with him, although sheer respect for their beauty and grandeur led to their incorporation among the writings of the earlier Isaiah. And thus may be found the writings of this second Isaiah in the book of that name, embracing chapters forty to fifty-five inclusive.

And it comforted the Jewish captives, as it has thousands upon thousands ever since, to hear such words as: “Thus says the Lord, ‘I have created you, I have redeemed you, I have called you by your name; you are mine.’” (Isa. 43:1) “When you pass through the waters, I will be with you since you are precious in my sight.” “Can a woman forget her suckling child that she should not have compassion on her son? Yes, she may forget, yet will I not forget my children, for behold I have graven them upon the palms of my hands; I have even covered them with the shadow of my hands.” “Let the wicked forsake his ways and the unrighteous man his thoughts, and let him return to the Lord, and he will have mercy upon him, and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon.” (Isa. 55:7) Listen again to the gospel of this new revelation of the God of Salem: “He shall feed his flock like a shepherd; he shall gather the lambs in his arms and carry them in his bosom. He gives power to the faint, and to those who have no might he increases strength. Those who wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run and not be weary; they shall walk and not faint.” (Isa. 40:11)

Hear this great Hebrew demolish the concept of a national God while in glory he proclaims the divinity of the Universal Father, of whom he says, “The heavens are my throne, and the earth is my footstool.” (Isa. 66:1) And Isaiah’s God was none the less holy, majestic, just, and unsearchable. The concept of the angry, vengeful, and jealous Yahweh of the desert Bedouins has almost vanished. A new concept of the supreme and universal Yahweh has appeared in the mind of mortal man, never to be lost to human view. The realization of divine justice has begun the destruction of primitive magic and biologic fear. At last, man is introduced to a universe of law and order and to a universal God of dependable and final attributes.

The farseeing and courageous Isaiah effectively eclipsed the nationalistic Yahweh by his sublime portraiture of the majesty and universal omnipotence of the supreme Yahweh, God of love, ruler of the universe, and affectionate Father of all mankind. Ever since those eventful days the highest God concept in the Occident has embraced universal justice, divine mercy, and eternal righteousness. In superb language and with matchless grace this great teacher portrayed the all-powerful Creator as the all-loving Father. This prophet of the captivity preached to his people and to those of many nations as they listened by the river in Babylon. And this second Isaiah did much to counteract the many wrong and racially egoistic concepts of the mission of the promised Messiah. But in this effort he was not wholly successful. Had the priests not dedicated themselves to the work of building up a misconceived nationalism, the teachings of the two Isaiahs would have prepared the way for the recognition and reception of the promised Messiah.

Jeremiah
Jeremiah fearlessly declared that Yahweh was not on the side of the Hebrews in their military struggles with other nations. He asserted that Yahweh was God of all the earth, of all nations and of all peoples. Jeremiah’s teaching was the crescendo of the rising wave of the internationalization of the God of Israel; finally and forever did this intrepid preacher proclaim that Yahweh was God of all nations, and that there was no Osiris for the Egyptians, Bel for the Babylonians, Ashur for the Assyrians, or Dagon for the Philistines. And thus did the religion of the Hebrews share in that renaissance of monotheism throughout the world at about and following this time; at last the concept of Yahweh had ascended to a Deity level of planetary and even cosmic dignity. But many of Jeremiah’s associates found it difficult to conceive of Yahweh apart from the Hebrew nation. Jeremiah also preached of the just and loving God described by Isaiah, declaring: “Yes, I have loved you with an everlasting love; therefore with loving-kindness have I drawn you.” (Jer. 31:3) “For he does not afflict willingly the children of men.” (Lam. 3:33)

Said this fearless prophet: “Righteous is our Lord, great in counsel and mighty in work. His eyes are open upon all the ways of all the sons of men, to give every one according to his ways and according to the fruit of his doings.” (Jer. 32:19) But it was considered blasphemous treason when, during the siege of Jerusalem, he said: “And now have I given these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, my servant.” (Jer. 27:6) And when Jeremiah counseled the surrender of the city, the priests and civil rulers cast him into the miry pit of a dismal dungeon.

Sacred and Profane History
The custom of looking upon the record of the experiences of the Hebrews as sacred history and upon the transactions of the rest of the world as profane history is responsible for much of the confusion existing in the human mind as to the interpretation of history. And this difficulty arises because there is no secular history of the Jews. After the priests of the Babylonian exile had prepared their new record of God’s supposedly miraculous dealings with the Hebrews, the sacred history of Israel as portrayed in the Old Testament, they carefully and completely destroyed the existing records of Hebrew affairs —such books as “The Doings of the Kings of Israel” and “The Doings of the Kings of Judah,” together with several other more or less accurate records of Hebrew history.

The prophets and priests began to cry: “How long, O Lord, how long?” As the honest Jew searched the Scriptures, his confusion became worse confounded. An olden seer promised that God would protect and deliver his “chosen people.” Amos had threatened that God would abandon Israel unless they re-established their standards of national righteousness. The scribe of Deuteronomy had portrayed the Great Choice —as between the good and the evil, the blessing and the curse. Isaiah the first had preached a beneficent king-deliverer. Jeremiah had proclaimed an era of inner righteousness —the covenant written on the tablets of the heart. The second Isaiah talked about salvation by sacrifice and redemption. Ezekiel proclaimed deliverance through the service of devotion, and Ezra promised prosperity by adherence to the law. But in spite of all this they lingered on in bondage, and deliverance was deferred. Then Daniel presented the drama of the impending “crisis” —the smiting of the great image and the immediate establishment of the everlasting reign of righteousness, the Messianic kingdom.

And all of this false hope led to such a degree of racial disappointment and frustration that the leaders of the Jews were so confused they failed to recognize and accept the mission and ministry of a divine Son of Paradise when he presently came to them in the likeness of mortal flesh —incarnated as the Son of Man. All modern religions have seriously blundered in the attempt to put a miraculous interpretation on certain epochs of human history. While it is true that God has many times thrust a Father’s hand of providential intervention into the stream of human affairs, it is a mistake to regard theologic dogmas and religious superstition as a supernatural sedimentation appearing by miraculous action in this stream of human history. The fact that the “Most Highs rule in the kingdoms of men” does not convert secular history into so-called sacred history.

New Testament authors and later Christian writers further complicated the distortion of Hebrew history by their well-meant attempts to transcendentalize the Jewish prophets. Thus has Hebrew history been disastrously exploited by both Jewish and Christian writers. Secular Hebrew history has been thoroughly dogmatized. It has been converted into a fiction of sacred history and has become inextricably bound up with the moral concepts and religious teachings of the so-called Christian nations. A brief recital of the high points in Hebrew history will illustrate how the facts of the record were so altered in Babylon by the Jewish priests as to turn the everyday secular history of their people into a fictitious and sacred history.

Hebrew History
There never were twelve tribes of the Israelites —only three or four tribes settled in Palestine. The Hebrew nation came into being as the result of the union of the so-called Israelites and the Canaanites. “And the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites. And they took their daughters to be their wives and gave their daughters to the sons of the Canaanites.” (Judges 3:5-6) The Hebrews never drove the Canaanites out of Palestine, notwithstanding that the priests’ record of these things unhesitatingly declared that they did. The Israelitish consciousness took origin in the hill country of Ephraim; the later Jewish consciousness originated in the southern clan of Judah. The Jews (Judahites) always sought to defame and blacken the record of the northern Israelites (Ephraimites).

Pretentious Hebrew history begins with Saul’s rallying the northern clans to withstand an attack by the Ammonites upon their fellow tribesmen —the Gileadites —east of the Jordan. With an army of a little more than three thousand he defeated the enemy, and it was this exploit that led the hill tribes to make him king. When the exiled priests rewrote this story, they raised Saul’s army to 330,000 and added “Judah” to the list of tribes participating in the battle. Immediately following the defeat of the Ammonites, Saul was made king by popular election by his troops. No priest or prophet participated in this affair. But the priests later on put it in the record that Saul was crowned king by the prophet Samuel in accordance with divine directions. This they did in order to establish a “divine line of descent” for David’s Judahite kingship.

The greatest of all distortions of Jewish history had to do with David. After Saul’s victory over the Ammonites (which he ascribed to Yahweh) the Philistines became alarmed and began attacks on the northern clans. David and Saul never could agree. David with six hundred men entered into a Philistine alliance and marched up the coast to Esdraelon. At Gath the Philistines ordered David off the field; they feared he might go over to Saul. David retired; the Philistines attacked and defeated Saul. They could not have done this had David been loyal to Israel. David’s army was a polyglot assortment of malcontents, being for the most part made up of social misfits and fugitives from justice. Saul’s tragic defeat at Gilboa by the Philistines brought Yahweh to a low point among the gods in the eyes of the surrounding Canaanites. Ordinarily, Saul’s defeat would have been ascribed to apostasy from Yahweh, but this time the Judahite editors attributed it to ritual errors. They required the tradition of Saul and Samuel as a background for the kingship of David.

David with his small army made his headquarters at the non-Hebrew city of Hebron. Presently his compatriots proclaimed him king of the new kingdom of Judah. Judah was made up mostly of non-Hebrew elements —Kenites, Calebites, Jebusites, and other Canaanites. They were nomads —herders —and so were devoted to the Hebrew idea of land ownership. They held the ideologies of the desert clans. The difference between sacred and profane history is well illustrated by the two differing stories concerning making David king as they are found in the Old Testament. A part of the secular story of how his immediate followers (his army) made him king was inadvertently left in the record by the priests who subsequently prepared the lengthy and prosaic account of the sacred history wherein is depicted how the prophet Samuel, by divine direction, selected David from among his brethren and proceeded formally and by elaborate and solemn ceremonies to anoint him king over the Hebrews and then to proclaim him Saul’s successor. So many times did the priests, after preparing their fictitious narratives of God’s miraculous dealings with Israel, fail fully to delete the plain and matter-of-fact statements which already rested in the records. David sought to build himself up politically by first marrying Saul’s daughter, then the widow of Nabal the rich Edomite, and then the daughter of Talmai, the king of Geshur. He took six wives from the women of Jebus, not to mention Bathsheba, the wife of the Hittite.

And it was by such methods and out of such people that David built up the fiction of a divine kingdom of Judah as the successor of the heritage and traditions of the vanishing northern kingdom of Ephraimite Israel. David’s cosmopolitan tribe of Judah was more gentile than Jewish; nevertheless the oppressed elders of Ephraim came down and “anointed him king of Israel.” After a military threat, David then made a compact with the Jebusites and established his capital of the united kingdom at Jebus (Jerusalem), which was a strong-walled city midway between Judah and Israel. The Philistines were aroused and soon attacked David. After a fierce battle they were defeated, and once more Yahweh was established as “The Lord God of Hosts.” But Yahweh must, perforce, share some of this glory with the Canaanite gods, for the bulk of David’s army was non-Hebrew. And so there appears in your record (overlooked by the Judahite editors) this telltale statement: “Yahweh has broken my enemies before me. Therefore he called the name of the place Baal-Perazim.” (2 Samuel 5:20) And they did this because eighty per cent of David’s soldiers were Baalites.

David explained Saul’s defeat at Gilboa by pointing out that Saul had attacked a Canaanite city, Gibeon, whose people had a peace treaty with the Ephraimites. Because of this, Yahweh forsook him. Even in Saul’s time David had defended the Canaanite city of Keilah against the Philistines, and then he located his capital in a Canaanite city. In keeping with the policy of compromise with the Canaanites, David turned seven of Saul’s descendants over to the Gibeonites to be hanged. After the defeat of the Philistines, David gained possession of the “ark of Yahweh,” brought it to Jerusalem, and made the worship of Yahweh official for his kingdom. He next laid heavy tribute on the neighboring tribes —the Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, and Syrians.

David’s corrupt political machine began to get personal possession of land in the north in violation of the Hebrew mores and presently gained control of the caravan tariffs formerly collected by the Philistines. And then came a series of atrocities climaxed by the murder of Uriah. All judicial appeals were adjudicated at Jerusalem; no longer could “the elders” mete out justice. No wonder rebellion broke out. Today, Absalom might be called a demagogue; his mother was a Canaanite. There were a half dozen contenders for the throne besides the son of Bathsheba —Solomon. After David’s death Solomon purged the political machine of all northern influences but continued all of the tyranny and taxation of his father’s regime. Solomon bankrupted the nation by his lavish court and by his elaborate building program: There was the house of Lebanon, the palace of Pharaoh’s daughter, the temple of Yahweh, the king’s palace, and the restoration of the walls of many cities. Solomon created a vast Hebrew navy, operated by Syrian sailors and trading with all the world. His harem numbered almost one thousand.

By this time Yahweh’s temple at Shiloh was discredited, and all the worship of the nation was centered at Jebus in the gorgeous royal chapel. The northern kingdom returned more to the worship of Elohim. They enjoyed the favor of the Pharaohs, who later enslaved Judah, putting the southern kingdom under tribute. There were ups and downs —wars between Israel and Judah. After four years of civil war and three dynasties, Israel fell under the rule of city despots who began to trade in land. Even King Omri attempted to buy Shemer’s estate. But the end drew on apace when Shalmaneser III decided to control the Mediterranean coast. King Ahab of Ephraim gathered ten other groups and resisted at Karkar; the battle was a draw. The Assyrian was stopped but the allies were decimated. This great fight is not even mentioned in the Old Testament.

New trouble started when King Ahab tried to buy land from Naboth. His Phoenician wife forged Ahab’s name to papers directing that Naboth’s land be confiscated on the charge that he had blasphemed the names of “Elohim and the king.” He and his sons were promptly executed. The vigorous Elijah appeared on the scene denouncing Ahab for the murder of the Naboths. Thus Elijah, one of the greatest of the prophets, began his teaching as a defender of the old land mores as against the land-selling attitude of the Baalim, against the attempt of the cities to dominate the country. But the reform did not succeed until the country landlord Jehu joined forces with the gypsy chieftain Jehonadab to destroy the prophets (real estate agents) of Baal at Samaria. New life appeared as Jehoash and his son Jeroboam delivered Israel from its enemies. But by this time there ruled in Samaria a gangster-nobility whose depredations rivaled those of the Davidic dynasty of olden days. State and church went along hand in hand. The attempt to suppress freedom of speech led Elijah, Amos, and Hosea to begin their secret writing, and this was the real beginning of the Jewish and Christian Bibles.

But the northern kingdom did not vanish from history until the king of Israel conspired with the king of Egypt and refused to pay further tribute to Assyria. Then began the three years’ siege followed by the total dispersion of the northern kingdom. Ephraim (Israel) thus vanished. Judah —the Jews, the “remnant of Israel” (Isa. 10:20) —had begun the concentration of land in the hands of the few, as Isaiah said, “Adding house to house and field to field.” (Isa. 5:8) Presently there was in Jerusalem a temple of Baal alongside the temple of Yahweh. This reign of terror was ended by a monotheistic revolt led by the boy king Joash, who crusaded for Yahweh for thirty-five years. The next king, Amaziah, had trouble with the revolting tax-paying Edomites and their neighbors. After a signal victory he turned to attack his northern neighbors and was just as signally defeated. Then the rural folk revolted; they assassinated the king and put his sixteen-year-old son on the throne. This was Azariah, called Uzziah by Isaiah. After Uzziah, things went from bad to worse, and Judah existed for a hundred years by paying tribute to the kings of Assyria. Isaiah the first told them that Jerusalem, being the city of Yahweh, would never fall. But Jeremiah did not hesitate to proclaim its downfall.

The real undoing of Judah was effected by a corrupt and rich ring of politicians operating under the rule of a boy king, Manasseh. The changing economy favored the return of the worship of Baal, whose private land dealings were against the ideology of Yahweh. The fall of Assyria and the ascendancy of Egypt brought deliverance to Judah for a time, and the country folk took over. Under Josiah they destroyed the Jerusalem ring of corrupt politicians. But this era came to a tragic end when Josiah presumed to go out to intercept Necho’s mighty army as it moved up the coast from Egypt for the aid of Assyria against Babylon. He was wiped out, and Judah went under tribute to Egypt. The Baal political party returned to power in Jerusalem, and thus began the real Egyptian bondage. Then ensued a period in which the Baalim politicians controlled both the courts and the priesthood. Baal worship was an economic and social system dealing with property rights as well as having to do with soil fertility.

With the overthrow of Necho by Nebuchadnezzar, Judah fell under the rule of Babylon and was given ten years of grace, but soon rebelled. When Nebuchadnezzar came against them, the Judahites started social reforms, such as releasing slaves, to influence Yahweh. When the Babylonian army temporarily withdrew, the Hebrews rejoiced that their magic of reform had delivered them. It was during this period that Jeremiah told them of the impending doom, and presently Nebuchadnezzar returned. And so the end of Judah came suddenly. The city was destroyed, and the people were carried away into Babylon. The Yahweh-Baal struggle ended with the captivity. And the captivity shocked the remnant of Israel into monotheism. In Babylon the Jews arrived at the conclusion that they could not exist as a small group in Palestine, having their own peculiar social and economic customs, and that, if their ideologies were to prevail, they must convert the gentiles. Thus originated their new concept of destiny —the idea that the Jews must become the chosen servants of Yahweh. The Jewish religion of the Old Testament really evolved in Babylon during the captivity.

The doctrine of immortality also took form at Babylon. The Jews had thought that the idea of the future life detracted from the emphasis of their gospel of social justice. Now for the first time theology displaced sociology and economics. Religion was taking shape as a system of human thought and conduct more and more to be separated from politics, sociology, and economics. And so does the truth about the Jewish people disclose that much which has been regarded as sacred history turns out to be little more than the chronicle of ordinary profane history. Judaism was the soil out of which Christianity grew, but the Jews were not a miraculous people.

The Hebrew Religion
Their leaders had taught the Israelites that they were a chosen people, not for special indulgence and monopoly of divine favor, but for the special service of carrying the truth of the one God over all to every nation. And they had promised the Jews that, if they would fulfill this destiny, they would become the spiritual leaders of all peoples, and that the coming Messiah would reign over them and all the world as the Prince of Peace. When the Jews had been freed by the Persians, they returned to Palestine only to fall into bondage to their own priest-ridden code of laws, sacrifices, and rituals. And as the Hebrew clans rejected the wonderful story of God presented in the farewell oration of Moses for the rituals of sacrifice and penance, so did these remnants of the Hebrew nation reject the magnificent concept of the second Isaiah for the rules, regulations, and rituals of their growing priesthood.

National egotism, false faith in a misconceived promised Messiah, and the increasing bondage and tyranny of the priesthood forever silenced the voices of the spiritual leaders (excepting Daniel, Ezekiel, Haggai, and Malachi); and from that day to the time of John the Baptist all Israel experienced an increasing spiritual retrogression. But the Jews never lost the concept of the Universal Father; even to the twentieth century after Christ they have continued to follow this Deity conception. From Moses to John the Baptist there extended an unbroken line of faithful teachers who passed the monotheistic torch of light from one generation to another while they unceasingly rebuked unscrupulous rulers, denounced commercializing priests, and ever exhorted the people to adhere to the worship of the supreme Yahweh, the Lord God of Israel.

As a nation the Jews eventually lost their political identity, but the Hebrew religion of sincere belief in the one and universal God continues to live in the hearts of the scattered exiles. And this religion survives because it has effectively functioned to conserve the highest values of its followers. The Jewish religion did preserve the ideals of a people, but it failed to foster progress and encourage philosophic creative discovery in the realms of truth. The Jewish religion had many faults —it was deficient in philosophy and almost devoid of aesthetic qualities —but it did conserve moral values; therefore it persisted. The supreme Yahweh, as compared with other concepts of Deity, was clear-cut, vivid, personal, and moral. The Jews loved justice, wisdom, truth, and righteousness as have few peoples, but they contributed least of all peoples to the intellectual comprehension and to the spiritual understanding of these divine qualities. Though Hebrew theology refused to expand, it played an important part in the development of two other world religions, Christianity and Mohammedanism (Islam).

The Jewish religion persisted also because of its institutions. It is difficult for religion to survive as the private practice of isolated individuals. This has ever been the error of the religious leaders: Seeing the evils of institutionalized religion, they seek to destroy the technique of group functioning. In place of destroying all ritual, they would do better to reform it. In this respect Ezekiel was wiser than his contemporaries; though he joined with them in insisting on personal moral responsibility, he also set about to establish the faithful observance of a superior and purified ritual. And thus the successive teachers of Israel accomplished the greatest feat in the evolution of religion ever to be effected on Earth: the gradual but continuous transformation of the barbaric concept of the savage demon Yahweh, the jealous and cruel spirit god of the fulminating Sinai volcano, to the later exalted and supernal concept of the supreme Yahweh, creator of all things and the loving and merciful Father of all mankind. And this Hebraic concept of God was the highest human visualization of the Universal Father up to that time when it was further enlarged and so exquisitely amplified by the personal teachings and life example of his Son.

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